Scanning Microscopy


Material damage caused by the implantation of a high concentration of hydrogenic ions requires regular remote monitoring in order to study the atomic and nuclear reaction processes taking place within each sample. Real time continuous measurements of acoustic emission, X-ray production and emitted particle flux enable processes such as bubble or crack formation, changes in crystalline order, and nuclear fusion reactions can be studied in detail through examination of secondary or associated emission products. Fracturing of a material may generate a unique signature which, when taken in conjunction with time-averaged quantities such as changes in resistivity, surface strain, and induced radioactivity, enable an overall picture of the onset and nature of crack formation to be acquired. The overall usefulness of the remote sensing of damage processes and nuclear reactions is discussed. Surface studies involving inelastic Raman scattering and atomic force spectroscopy can contribute substantially to the overall picture, and identify clustering and cluster processes.

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