Scanning Microscopy


X-ray radiation is a non-destructive probe well suited to assess structural perfection of semiconductor material. Three techniques are used to study the interfacial roughness, period fluctuations and annealing-induced interdiffusion in various superlattice structures. Reflectivity of long period Si/Si1-xGex multiple quantum wells reveals an asymmetry oriented along the direction of miscut in the interface roughness with the Si1-xGex to Si interfaces being about twice as rough (0.5 versus 0.3 nm) as the Si to Si1-xGex interfaces. For Si-Si0.65Ge0.35 multiple quantum wells, diffuse scattering is minimal for a growth temperature of 550°C and increases substantially at very low (250°C) or high (750°C) growth temperatures. In (SimGen)p short period superlattices, the X-ray reflectivity data are consistent with interfacial mixing over about two monolayers and thickness fluctuations of about 5% vertically in the structures. For superlattices grown on vicinal surfaces, the roughness spectrum is correlated with the surface miscut orientation. Double-crystal X-ray diffraction using symmetrical and asymmetrical reflections has been used to study epitaxial lattice distortion and strain relaxation in InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures grown on (100) on-orientation and 2° off (100) GaAs surfaces. It is shown that thick InGaAs films retain an appreciable fraction of their initial strain and that their crystal lattice is triclinically distorted. The magnitude of the deformation is larger when growth is carried out on a vicinal surface.

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