It is generally recognized that calcium oxalate crystal formation in urine is induced by heterogeneous nucleation. However, there is no consensus as to the nature of the nucleation substrate. Evidence is provided in this paper that membranous cellular degradation products are the most likely candidates because they: (1) are ubiquitous in urine and urinary stones; (2) are found in close association with crystal deposits in the kidneys; and (3) can induce nucleation of crystals from a meta-stable solution of calcium oxalate in vitro and metastable urine in vivo.
Khan, Saeed R.
"Heterogeneous Nucleation of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Mammalian Urine,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 9
, Article 26.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol9/iss2/26