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It is generally accepted that significant electrification, and subsequent lightning generation, in clouds is attained via non-inductive charging (NIC) when sufficient numbers of ice crystals collide with graupel particles in the presence of supercooled liquid water [e.g. Saunders et al., 1991; Jayaratne et al., 1983; Takahashi, 1978]. As these particle scale interactions are driven by vertical motions it can be argued that, under appropriate thermodynamical and microphysical conditions, any process that enhances updraft strength should also enhance the storms ability to generate lightning. Constrained by mass continuity, updrafts leading to deep moist convection are necessarily associated with sub-cloud horizontal mass convergence. Given that the Earth’s surface is impermeable with respect to the wind, it is clear that horizontal convergence of boundary layer winds should result in compensating upward vertical motions with greater convergence over a given area resulting in greater vertical motions, possibly capable of initiating and/or intensifying convection. All else being equal (i.e., sufficient moisture and instability requisite for the development of deep moist convection), enhancements in boundary layer convergence (BLC) should deepen the planetary boundary layer (PBL), thereby enhancing the instability, with the end result being an increase in the number of updrafts capable of breaking the “cap” (capping inversion) allowing for more vigorous interactions between precipitation sized ice particles and ascending ice crystals within the charging zone, ultimately resulting in enhancements in thunderstorm electrification and lightning via NIC.





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Modern Climatology, whole system, historical statistics, variability, atmosphere, prediction


Climate | Earth Sciences


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12 On the Relationship Between Boundary Layer Convergence and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning