Influence of –Carrageenan, Pectin, and Gelatin on the Physicochemical Properties and Stability of Milk Protein-Stabilized Emulsions
Journal of Food Science
This study evaluated the stability of bilayer emulsions as a function of secondary layer composition and pH. Primary emulsions were formulated with 5% soybean oil, 1% protein from nonfat dry milk (NDM) powder as emulsifier and ι-carrageenan (ι-carr), low-methoxyl pectin (LMp), high-methoxyl pectin (HMp), or gelatin as secondary layers. ζ-Potential values increased for each emulsion as the pH decreased, with ι-carr emulsions being consistently more negatively charged than primary emulsions and significantly more stable. ζ-Potential values were not always correlated to emulsion stability. Gelatin secondary emulsions at pH 3 and HMp secondary emulsions at pH 7 were unstable due to the presence of depletion flocculation. In addition, LMp secondary emulsions stability at pH 7 might be due to calcium bridging, which increased the emulsion's viscosity. Overall, the stability of NDM emulsions was improved when ι-carr and LMp were used as secondary layers at pH 7 and 5, and when ι-carr and HMp were used as secondary layers at pH 3. Increased stability of these systems can be attributed to a second homogenization step used to formulate the secondary emulsions and to the presence of Ca+2 in the NDM. Results from this research show that the stability of bilayer emulsions is driven by the presence of depletion flocculation, droplet charge, droplet size and distribution and viscosity.
Tippetts*, M. and Martini, S. 2012. Influence of –Carrageenan, Pectin, and Gelatin on the Physicochemical Properties and Stability of Milk Protein-Stabilized Emulsions. Journal of Food Science 77:C253-260 – doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02576.x (Impact Factor: 1.733)