There is a need to recognize a duality of object and context perspectives on ecosystems, and a need to synthesize the two in a way which clearly identifies the distinctions and links between them. This paper proposes a new terminology of spatially-fixed atoms, diffuse entities, and molecules to represent ecological entities; and it argues the need for identifying the processes linking them, Ecosystem management will require development of simple, mechanistic models of local ecosystem dynamics which incorporate basic successional dynamics, disturbance response, and management response. It will require development of statistical, predictive models of ecosystem distribution on the landscape. And it will require development of simple, spatial integration algorithms linked to a spatially explicit database in a GIS.
Roberts, David W.
"Object or context: an ecologist's view of ecosystem management,"
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues: Vol. 5
, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nrei/vol5/iss1/4