Physical Review Letters
High-resolution 4f photoemission spectra from clean W(110) show that the natural lifetime width and the (electron-hole)-pair singularity index are both larger in the first atomic layer than in the bulk. Phonon broadening for the surface and bulk components are smaller than theoretical estimates, and little excess broadening is detected in the surface layer. These findings are very different from the conventional picture of surface-atom core-level line shapes and have implications extending to other systems.
"Different Core-Hole Lifetime and Screening in the Surface of W(110)," D. M. Riffe, G. K. Wertheim, and P. H. Citrin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1976 (1989).