Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM) simulations are diagnostically analyzed to investigate the causes of mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) wind changes at middle latitudes during the 17 April 2002 storm. In the early phase of the storm, middle‐latitude upper thermospheric wind changes are greater and occur earlier than MLT wind changes. The horizontal wind changes cause downward vertical wind changes, which are transmitted to the MLT region. Adiabatic heating and heat advection associated with downward vertical winds cause MLT temperature increases. The pressure gradient produced by these temperature changes and the Coriolis force then drive strong equatorward meridional wind changes at night, which expand toward lower latitudes. Momentum advection is minor. As the storm evolves, the enhanced MLT temperatures produce upward vertical winds. These upward winds then lead to a decreased temperature, which alters the MLT horizontal wind pattern and causes poleward wind disturbances at higher latitudes.
Li, J., Wang, W., Lu, J., Yue, J., Burns, A. G., Yuan, T., et al. (2019). A modeling study of the responses of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds to geomagnetic storms at middle latitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124, 3666–3680. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA026533