Journal of Geophysical Research
Enhancements of the total electron content (TEC) in the middle-latitude dayside ionosphere have often been observed during geomagnetic storms. The enhancements can be as large as a factor of 2 or more, and many sightings of such structures have occurred over the United States. Here we investigate the effectiveness of an expanded convection electric field as a mechanism for producing such ionospheric enhancements. As a test case, we examine the storm period of 5–7 November 2001, for which observations from the DMSP F13 are used to drive the Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM). Our findings indicate that at favorable universal times, the presence of the expanded electric field is sufficient to create dayside TEC enhancements of a factor of 2 or more. The modeled enhancements consist of locally produced plasma; we do not find it necessary to transport high-density plasma northward from low latitudes.
Heelis, R. A., J. J. Sojka, M. David, and R. W. Schunk, Storm-time density enhancements in the middle latitude dayside ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res, 114, A03315, doi:10.1029/2008JA013690, 2009.