Radio Science Bulletin
Current ionospheric models are very good at specifying regular diurnal and seasonal variations of the E and F regions of the ionosphere. Less is known about the behavior of the D region, although progress has recently been made with models such as the Data-Driven D-Region (DDDR). However, significant departures from modeled behaviors are observed even during solar minimum conditions, due to complex ionospheric weather effects arising from both solar activity above and terrestrial atmospheric perturbations below. The D-region perturbations directly affect VLF communications, and also affect daytime absorption of frequencies from LF through HF. Perturbations in the E and F regions affect HF propagation, and may impact transionospheric communications at much higher frequencies.
Rice, D. D., R. D. Hunsucker, J. V. Eccles, J. J. Sojka, J. W. Raitt, and J. J. Brady, Characterizing the lower ionosphere with a space - weather - aware receiver matrix, Radio Science Bulletin, No. 328, 20-32, 2009.