Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

The Journal of Educational Research


Taylor & Francis

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Last Page



This study compared 70 English learners (ELs) and English-only (EO) second-grade students’ writing samples before and after a yearlong writing program. The school utilized Write From the Beginning (J. Buckner, 2006) and focused on personal narratives. A subgroup of students also participated in an intervention supporting expository writing on curricular topics. Sociocognitive theory framed the Modeled Writing (MW) used in this study. An analysis of covariance used prescores on 2 writing assessments to compare students’ writing achievement at the end of the year, and t tests compared students’ writing by gender, language, and group on various pre- and posttest scores. Results indicate that MW benefited both EOs and ELs and that the MW students outscored the controls on all items of the standardized writing assessment at year’s end. The comparison affords greater understanding of writing development and achievement differences among young ELs and EOs and suggests instructional and research opportunities.



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