Journal of Education
This study describes 3 years of mathematics intervention research examining the effectiveness of a summer individualized tutoring program for rising fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students with low mathematics achievement. Based on an iceberg model of learning, an instructional framework was developed that identified and targeted students’ specific mathematical needs, developed number sense flexibility, and encouraged positive mindset or disposition. Students participated in eight one-on-one tutoring intervention sessions. Pre- and posttest results indicated that students made moderate to large effect size gains in each targeted area of instruction. Additionally, the intervention proved to produce positive results across three different contexts for delivering tutoring instruction.
Westenskow, A., Moyer-Packenham, P. S., & Child, B. (2017). An iceberg model for improving mathematical understanding and mindset or disposition: An individualized summer intervention program. Journal of Education, 197(1), 1-9.