Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching






Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page



With recent advances in computer technology, it is no surprise that the manipulation of objects in mathematics classrooms now includes the manipulation of objects on the computer screen. These objects, referred to as virtual manipulatives, are essentially replicas of physical manipulatives placed on the World Wide Web in the form of computer applets with additional advantageous features. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of using several virtual manipulative ma·nip·u·la·tive adj. Serving, tending, or having the power to manipulate. n. Any of various objects designed to be moved or arranged by hand as a means of developing motor skills or understanding abstractions, especially in computer applets for instruction during a fraction unit in a third-grade classroom. The participants in this study were 19 third-grade students. During a two-week unit on fractions, students interacted with several virtual manipulative applets in a computer lab. Data sources in the project included a pre and posttest post·test n. A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned. of students' conceptual knowledge, a pre and posttest of students' procedural computation Computation is a general term for any type of information processing that can be represented mathematically. This includes phenomena ranging from simple calculations to human thinking. ..... Click the link for more information. skills, student interviews, and a student attitudes survey. The results indicated a statistically significant improvement in students' posttest scores on a test of conceptual knowledge, and a significant relationship between students' scores on the posttests of conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and intellectual property law. ..... Click the link for more information.. Student interviews and attitude surveys indicated that the virtual manipulatives (1) helped students in this class learn more about fractions by providing immediate and specific feedback, (2) were easier and faster to use than paper-and-pencil methods, and (3) enhanced students' enjoyment while learning mathematics.


Originally published by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

Included in

Education Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.