Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching
This study investigated how the use of virtual manipulatives in integer instruction impacts student achievement for integer addition and subtraction. Of particular interest was the influence of using virtual manipulatives on students’ ability to create and translate among representations for integer computation. The research employed a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design. Ninety-nine sixth-grade students participated over a four-week period. Six classes were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Students increased in integer computation achievement and demonstrated facility with pictures and written representations. Students had more difficulty creating symbolic representations and making connections among this and other representational forms.
Bolyard, J., & Moyer-Packenham, P. S. (2012). Making sense of integer arithmetic: The effect of using virtual manipulatives on students’ representational fluency. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 31(2), 93-113.