Social factors and responses to racial discrimination
Journal of Psychology
We examined the impact of gender and religious affiliation on willingness to confront racial discrimination committed by three categories of persons, authority figures, strangers, and peers. American students were presented scenarios in which discrimination occurred and expressed their degree of willingness to challenge the discrimination. Women expressed more willingness than men, and nonfundamentalists were more likely than fundamentalists to challenge discrimination. Nonfundamentalists were, in particular, more willing than fundamentalists to confront authority figures engaging in discrimination. All respondents were most likely to confront a stranger and least likely to challenge a peer.
Byrnes, D. A. & Kiger, G. (1992). Social factors and responses to racial discrimination. Journal of Psychology, 126, 631-638.