Academic retention: An inside look
Interviewed 52 1st-, 9 3rd-, and 10 6th-graders, an equal number of their peers who were not retained, and some students slated for possible retention the next year. 25 teachers were also interviewed concerning their views on academic retention. Questions were nested within longer discussions of school in general and included questions about Ss' feelings about retention, perceived reasons for retention, and the manner in which the retained Ss were informed. Findings suggest that children felt anxious about the reactions of their peers and others to their status and that teachers of retained students often provided little more than a repeat of the previous year's curriculum. It is suggested that grade retention is of dubious effectiveness with low pupil achievement and motivation and is internalized by the children as a negative and confusing experience.
Byrnes, D. A., & Yamamoto, K. (1985). Academic retention: An inside look. Education, 106, 208-214.