M D P I AG
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A Piano Key weir (PK weir) is a nonlinear, labyrinth-type weir well suited for rehabilitation projects due to a relatively small footprint and the ability to pass large discharges for lesser upstream-head values when compared with other weir types. A critical component of a hydraulic structure is the energy-dissipative properties. Currently, information and guidance is limited, with previous energy dissipation studies of PK weirs primarily of specific projects. Therefore, to document and quantify energy dissipation, four laboratory-scale Type A PK weir models with different width ratios (Wi/Wo) were studied, with 255 tests comprising this new dataset, along with detailed observations of the flow field. Results were compared to existing published data regarding energy dissipation downstream of trapezoidal and rectangular labyrinth weirs. To support design efforts, two equations, both functions of head-water ratio (H/P) and Wi/Wo, are proposed to predict the relative residual energy downstream of PK weirs. The energy dissipation of PK weirs is largest at low flows and decreases in a logarithmic-like manner as flow increases. PK weirs with increased hydraulic efficiency, caused by an increase in Wi/Wo, resulted in slightly smaller energy dissipation values within the range 0.2 ≤ H/P ≤ 0.8. The energy dissipation of PK weirs was found to be relatively constant, independent of Wi/Wo, and in the ranges 0.07 ≤ H/P ≤ 0.2 and 0.8 ≤ H/P ≤ 0.95.
R. Eslinger, K.; Crookston, B.M. Energy Dissipation of Type a Piano Key Weirs. Water 2020, 12, 1253. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051253