This study consists of collecting and analyzing experimental data to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor for 6-inch and 4-inch PERMASTRAN® pipes and the head losses due to RING-TITE filament-wound 6-inch 90° elbows, a 6 x 6-inch tee under several modes of operation, and a 6 x 6 x 4-inch tee with the flow entering a 6-inch branch and leaving through the 4-inch branch. The test program consisted of 8 series of individual tests with each series giving data for flow rates for each series ranging from 150 gpm to either 1200 gpm or 1500 gpm depending upon the series. The analyses of data to determine the friction factors head losses in both the 6-inch and 4-inch PERMASTRAN® pipe indicate that the values fall on a hydraulically smooth curve of the Moody diagram for the range of Reynolds numbers tested. The same friction factors exist for the PVC pipe used in the tests because each has the same polyvinylchloride inside wall material. Head losses for these 6-inch and 4-inch pipes over a range of Reynolds numbers are given in Table 8. The coefficient of head loss due to the 6-inch RING-TITE filament-wound 90° elbow equals 0.5 and this value is constant over the range of Reynolds numbers of the tests. The average coefficient of head loss caused by the 6 x 6 x 6-inch RING-TITE filament-wound tee when operating as a 90° elbow (i.e. with the pipe in one “straight through” branch plugged) equal 1.5 with slightly larger values at smaller Reynolds numbers. The average coefficient of head loss caused by the 6 x 6 x 4-inch RING-TITE filament-wound tee when operating in this same mode (flow leaving through 4-inch branch) equals 1.6 when based on the velocity head in the 4-inch pipe and 6.9 when based on the velocity head in the 6-inch pipe. The head losses in the 6 x 6 x 6-inch tee were also measured with the tee operating to separate the flow coming into one of the “straight through” branches into two outflows. The head loss coefficients which measure the head loss between the two “straight through” branches plot against Reynolds number as a straight line on log-log paper. The head loss coefficients which measure the head loss between the “straight through: inlet and the branch 90° therefrom are larger than the previous coefficients and tend toward constant values at the higher Reynolds number of the tests. A summary of these head loss coefficients is given on Fig. 15. In addition the head losses in the 6 x 6 x 6-inch tee were measured with the flow coming into two branches of the tee and being combined into a single outflow from one branch. The combined outflow was passes through one of the “straight through: branches with the inflows coming into the other “straight through” branch and the branch at 90° therefrom. In this mode of operation the tee becomes a simple two branch manifold. The several head loss coefficients for this mode of operation to combine the flows are summarized on Fig. 16, but also vary with Reynolds number.
Jeppson, Roland W., "Head Losses Due to Ring-Tite Filament Wound Elbows and Tees and Frictional Losses in Pipes of Polyvinylchloride" (1973). Reports. Paper 302.