Studying the tissue-biomaterial interface at the ultrastructural level is not without problems. Dissolution of the biomaterial in one of the dehydration or embedding media causes holes and shatter during sectioning or dislodgement of the biomaterial. The fine tuning of the hardness of both biomaterial and embedding medium, as well as the introduction of butyl-2,3- epoxypropylether as an intermediate between the dehydration series and the Epon resin , improving the impregnation , will solve many of the problems mentioned. With this improved technique good results were obtained with materials ranging from teflon, poly(Lactic acid) and polyurethanes to tissue culture polystyrene. No holes, shatter or dislodgement of the biomaterial was observed.
Schakenraad, J. M.; Oosterbaan, J. A.; and Blaauw, E. H.
"Preservation of the Cell-Biomaterial Interface at the Ultrastructural Level,"
Cells and Materials: Vol. 1
, Article 5.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cellsandmaterials/vol1/iss1/5