Scanning Electron Microscopy


At present it is difficult to use direct image processing techniques to determine the specimen structure from electron micrographs obtained under non-linear imaging conditions, and impossible when the effects of dynamical scattering are strong (as in the case of thicker specimens). However, computing techniques are available to simulate high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of postulated model structures. With these techniques it is possible to confirm the validity of interpretation of recorded micrographs, to help analyze crystal defects, to characterize microscope parameters, and to determine the ranges of validity of commonly used interpretive approximations. Because processed micrographs can lead to suitable model structures and, in turn, models can indicate optimum directions for processing, the two techniques are excellent complements.

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