The shifts in the binding energy of core electrons detected by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are a very sensitive probe of the chemical bonding of the excited atom. Since the surface atoms have their geometrical environment perturbed, their core levels are shifted from their bulk positions. A very large number of experiments have been performed on the 4f core level positions of tantalum and tungsten for various orientations of the surface plane. Systematic trends have been put forward and explained by theoretical models. Furthermore, the analysis of the angular variation of the core level line intensities gives structural information when compared with theoretical calculations. In the case of W(100) a single scattering theory is sufficient to reproduce experimental data. Finally we show that, in some particular cases, the core level lineshapes may differ strongly from a Doniach Sunjic model. The temperature dependence of their widths due to core hole-phonon coupling can be reproduced within the independent boson theory.
Desjonquères, M. C.; Sébilleau, D.; Tréglia, G.; Spanjaard, D.; Guillot, C.; Chauveau, D.; and Lecante, J.
"Analysis of Clean Transition Metal Surfaces by Core Level Spectroscopy,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 1
, Article 8.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol1/iss4/8