The combination of methods for surface analysis with electron microscopes (EM) gives the possibility for surface and interface microanalysis. The paper deals with different methods a) for imaging of surfaces with high lateral resolution: Emission EM (EEM), Scanning EM (SEM), Reflection EM (REM) Transmission EM (TEM) using special preparation methods as replica techniques or cross section specimens b) for crystal structure investigation: Low and High Energy Electron Diffraction and Electron Chanelling Patterns and c) for material analysis using electron spectroscopy either of the emitted or scattered electrons.
The combination of all analytical methods in one instrument for surface microanalysis (SMA) however is difficult. The possibilities and limitations of different SMA instruments are discussed.
"Investigation of Surfaces and Interfaces by Electron Optical Methods,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 2
, Article 7.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol2/iss4/7