In the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), the electron beam together with various signals emanating from the beam-specimen interaction ionize the gaseous medium in the specimen chamber. A detailed derivation of equations describing the charge density and current flow in the system is presented. It is shown that the various causes of ionization operate over distinct regions, which can be separated out by suitable electrode configuration. The electron probe retains a fraction of electrons with the original charge distribution; this is surrounded by a widespread electron skirt, which, in turn, is surrounded by charge created by the secondary electrons, beyond which extends the action of backscattered electrons.
Danilatos, G. D.
"Equations of Charge Distribution in the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM),"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 4
, Article 1.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol4/iss4/1