A scanning electron microscopy study of the ultrastructure of 18 calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi was performed with the purpose of establishing the main steps in calculus formation. It is concluded that these calculi originate in a "core" located near the central part of the calculus. Significant quantities of organic matter as well as calcium phosphates can be found in the "core" and at the surface of adhesion to the papilla and, in some cases, fibers and calcified tubules can also be found in the contact zone. In no case did this material affect the crystalline structure of the calculi, indicating that its formation follows the calculus genesis. The study of the compact columnar zone revealed that its formation starts in a practically continuous surface formed by organic matter and crystals that surround the core. This layer favors the growth of oriented calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals upon it. Based on these observations, a feasible mechanism of papillary calcium oxalate monohydrate calculus formation is proposed.
Grases, F.; Costa-Bauzá, A.; and Conte, A.
"Studies on Structure of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Papillary Calculi. Mechanism of Formation,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 7
, Article 30.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol7/iss3/30