A MTT/formazan assay was used to evaluate the antitumor activity of vitamin C (Vit C), vitamin K3 (Vit K3), or vitamin C:vitamin K3 combinations against a human prostatic carcinoma cell line (DU145). Both Vit C and Vit K3 alone exhibited antitumor activity, but only at elevated doses. When Vit C and Vit K3 were combined at a C:K3 ratio of 100:1 and administered to the carcinoma cells, the 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CD50) of the vitamins decreased 10-to 60-fold. Subsequently, the DU145 cells were examined with transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) following a 1 hour treatment with Vit C, Vit K3, or Vit C/K3 combined at their 50% cytotoxic dose. Our morphological data suggest that vitamin treatment with individual vitamins affects the cytoskeleton, the mitochondria, and other membranous components of the cell. Treatment with the vitamin combination appears to potentiate the effects of the individual vitamin treatment. Specifically, there are abundant necrotic cells. The surviving cells display morphological defects characteristic of cell injury.
Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M.; Venugopal, Meenaxi; Giammar, David; and Summers, Jack L.
"Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy Aspects of Synergistic Antitumor Activity of Vitamin C - Vitamin K3 Combinations Against Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cells,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 9
, Article 11.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol9/iss1/11