Date of Award:
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences
Department name when degree awarded
Nutrition and Food Sciences
Rodney J. Brown
Cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography separated whole casein into β-casein A2, A1, and B, K-casein, αs1-casein, and αs2-casein fractions as well as γ-caseins and several unidentified peaks using a urea-acetate buffer at pH 5 and a NaCl gradient. The whole casein fractions eluted in the following order: breakdown products of β-casein and unidentified peaks; β-casein A2, Al, and B; additional breakdown products of β-casein and unidentified peaks; K-casein; αs1-casein; and αs2-casein. The calculated composition of the four major caseins correlated well with values obtained using anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography at pH 7. An acid-PAGE gel confirmed that the three β-casein peaks were variants of β-casein.
Incubating herd bulk whole casein with neuraminidase (EC 22.214.171.124) removed carbohydrate from K-casein. Anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography separated whole casein into β-casein breakdown products, K-casein A and B, β-casein, αs2-casein, and αs1-casein peaks as well as three unidentified fractions using bis-Tris-propane-urea buffer at pH 7 and a NaCl gradient. Fractions of whole casein eluted in the following order: breakdown products of β-casein and unidentified fractions A and B; K-casein fraction; unidentified C fraction; β-casein; αs2-casein; and αs1-casein. Following treatment with neuraminidase, K-casein eluted as K-casein B and A rather than a series of peaks. Casein samples from individual cows containing known combinations of K-casein A and B confirmed that the peaks were K-casein variants.
Isoelectric focusing on a PhastSystem™ separated K-casein A and B; β-casein A1, A2, A3, and B; αs1-casein Band C; β-lactoglobulin A and B; αs2-casein A; and α-lactalbumin B. Minimal preparation and a short separation time enabled many whole milk and whole casein samples to be phenotyped daily.
Stepwise regression equations derived to predict samples as homozygous or heterozygous for K-casein A and B and β-casein A1, A2, and B had coefficient of determination values of .18, .58, .82, and .72 for K-casein A and B, β-casein A1, β-casein A2, and β-casein B. Although amino acid analysis can identify whether β-casein A1, A2, or B variants are present, it cannot identify whether K-casein A and B variants are present.
Percentages of K-casein, β-casein, αs1-casein, and αs2-casein obtained with isoelectric focusing, cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, and anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography compare well with published results. Isoelectric focusing and anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography methods separated K-casein into its A and B variants. Isoelectric focusing and cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography separated β-casein into its A1, A2, and B variants. Individual cows homozygous for K-casein A or B expressed the same amount of K-casein. When results from individual cows heterozygous for K-casein are combined, the two alleles are expressed equally; on an individual cow basis, however, some cows expressed more K-casein B than K-casein A. Individual cows homozygous for β-casein A1, A2 or B expressed the same amount of β-casein. When the results for individual cows heterozygous for β-casein are combined, the two β-casein alleles are expressed equally. In milk from individual cows typed β-casein A2B, slightly more B than A2 was expressed with cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography.
Hollar, Carol M., "Estimation of Selected Milk Protein Genetic Variants by Multi-Component Analysis of Amino Acid Profiles" (1992). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 5390.
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