Date of Award:
Master of Science (MS)
Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences
Jerrad F. Legako
This study determined how quality grade and degree of doneness influence the development of beef flavor compounds among whole muscle and ground patties. Proximate composition, pH, cooking duration, neutral and polar lipid fatty acids, free and total amino acids, total reducing sugars, and volatile compounds were evaluated in beef strip steaks and ground patties of Longissimus lumborum from three USDA quality grades (Prime, Low Choice, and Standard; n=8 per quality grade) and six degrees of doneness (4, 25, 55, 60, 71, and 77°C). In the split-plot experiment, quality grade was the whole-plot, product-type was a sub-plot, and degree of doneness was the sub-sub-plot. The 3-way interaction of quality grade, degree of doneness, and product type impacted moisture (P = 0.004) and protein content (P = 0.006); pH (P < 0.001); neutral and polar lipid fatty acids (P ≤ 0.048); free and total amino acids (P ≤ 0.044); total reducing sugars (P < 0.001); and volatile compounds (P ≤ 0.029). The 2-way interaction of quality grade and degree of doneness impacted free amino acids (P ≤ 0.036); PUFA within the neutral lipid fraction (P ≤ 0.033); fatty acids within the polar lipid fraction (P ≤ 0.043); volatile compounds (P ≤ 0.038); and the total fat percentage (P = 0.046). The 2-way interaction of quality grade and product type impacted fatty acids within the neutral lipid fraction (P ≤ 0.042); fatty acids within the polar lipid fraction (P ≤ 0.015); and volatile compounds (P ≤ 0.047). The 2-way interaction of product type and degree of doneness affected fatty acids within the neutral lipid fraction (P ≤ 0.046); fatty acids within the polar lipid fraction (P ≤ 0.035); free amino acids (P ≤ 0.005) and total amino acids (P ≤ 0.004); volatile compounds (P ≤ 0.029); and cooking duration (P < 0.001). Overall the results of this study indicated that quality grade, grinding, and cooking have interacting effects on flavor related compounds. Thus, each factor must be considered during any model development which aims to predict beef flavor.
Gardner, Kourtney, "Comparison of Beef Flavor Compounds from Steaks and Ground Patties of Three USDA Quality Grades and Varied Degrees of Doneness" (2017). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 6508.
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