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Domestic Animal Endocrinology




Elsevier Inc.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Approximately 90% of beef cattle on feed in the United States receive at least one anabolic implant, which results in increased growth, efficiency, and economic return to producers. However, the complete molecular mechanism through which anabolic implants function to improve skeletal muscle growth remains unknown. This study had 2 objectives: (1) determine the effect of polyamines and their precursors on proliferation rate in bovine satellite cells (BSC); and (2) understand whether trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, has an impact on the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. To address these, BSC were isolated from 3 finished steers and cultured. Once cultures reached 75% confluency, they were treated in 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and/or 10 nM TBA, 10 mM methionine (Met), 8 mM ornithine (Orn), 2 mM putrescine (Put), 1.5 mM spermidine (Spd), or 0.5 mM spermine (Spe). Initially, a range of physiologically relevant concentrations of Met, Orn, Put, Spd, and Spe were tested to determine experimental doses to implement the aforementioned experiments. One, 12, or 24 h after treatment, mRNA was isolated from cultures and abundance of paired box transcription factor 7 (Pax7), Sprouty 1 (Spry), mitogen-activated protein kinase-1 (Mapk), ornithine decarboxylase (Odc), and S adenosylmethionine (Amd1) were determined, and normalized to 18S. No treatment × time interactions were observed (P ≥ 0.05). Treatment with TBA, Met, Orn, Put, Spd, or Spe increased (P ≤ 0.05) BSC proliferation when compared with control cultures. Treatment of cultures with Orn or Met increased (P ≤ 0.01) expression of Odc 1 h after treatment when compared with control cultures. Abundance of Amd1 was increased (P < 0.01) 1 h after treatment in cultures treated with Spd or Spe when compared with 1% FBS controls. Cultures treated with TBA had increased (P < 0.01) abundance of Spry mRNA 12 h after treatment, as well as increased mRNA abundance of Mapk (P < 0.01) 12 h and 24 h after treatment when compared with 1% FBS control cultures. Treatment with Met increased (P < 0.01) mRNA abundance of Pax7 1 h after treatment as compared with 1% FBS controls. These results indicate that treatments of BSC cultures with polyamines and their precursors increase BSC proliferation rate, as well as abundance of mRNA involved in cell proliferation. In addition, treatment of BSC cultures with TBA, polyamines, or polyamine precursors impacts expression of genes related to the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and proliferation.