Daniella Hirschfeld, Utah State UniversityFollow
David Behar, San Francisco Public Utilities CommissionFollow
Robert Nicholls, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change ResearchFollow
Niamh Cahill, National University of Ireland, MaynoothFollow
Thomas James, Natural Resources CanadaFollow
Ben Horton, Nanyang Technological UniversityFollow
Michelle E. Portman, Technion - Israel Institute of TechnologyFollow
Rob Bell, Bell Adapt LtdFollow
Matt Campo, Rutgers, The State University of New JerseyFollow
Miguel Esteban, Waseda UniversityFollow
Bronwyn Goble, The Oceanographic Research InstituteFollow
Munsur Rahman, Bangladesh University of Engineering and TechnologyFollow
Kwasi Appeaning Addo, University of GhanaFollow
Faiz Ahmed, School of Planning and Architecture, VijayawadaFollow
Monique Aunger, Geological Survey of CanadaFollow
Orly Babitsky, Technion - Israel Institute of TechnologyFollow
Anders Beal, Woodrow Wilson International Center for ScholarsFollow
Ray Boyle, University of California BerkeleyFollow
Jiayi Fang, East China Normal UniversityFollow
Amir Gohar, University of HuddersfieldFollow
Susan Hanson, University of SouthamptonFollow
Saul Karamesines, Utah State UniversityFollow
MJ Kim, Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries affairs
Hilary Lohmann, Department of Planning and Natural Resources
Kathy McInnes, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Nobuo Mimura, Ibaraki UniversityFollow
Doug Ramsay, National Institute for Water and Atmospheric ResearchFollow
Landis Wenger, Utah State UniversityFollow
Hiromune Yokoki, Ibaraki UniversityFollow


Including sea-level rise (SLR) projections in coastal adaptation is increasingly recognized as crucial. Here we analyze the first global survey on the use of SLR projections comprising 253 coastal practitioners engaged in adaptation/planning from 49 countries with time frames of 2050 and 2100. While recognition of the threat of SLR is almost universally recognized, only 71% of respondents currently utilize SLR projections. Generally, developing countries have lower levels of utilization. There is no global standard in the use of SLR projections: for locations using a standard structure, 53% are planning for a single projection, while the remainder are using multiple projections, with 13% considering an unlikely high-end scenario. Countries with long histories of adaptation and consistent national support show greater assimilation of SLR projections into adaptation decisions. This research proves insightful for improving sea-level science, and informs important ongoing efforts on the application of the science which are essential to promote effective adaptation.

Author ORCID Identifier

Daniella Hirschfeld

David Behar

Robert Nicholls

Niamh Cahill

Thomas James

Ben Horton

Michelle E. Portman

Rob Bell

Miguel Esteban

Bronwyn Goble

Munsur Rahman

Kwasi Appeaning Addo

Jiayi Fang

Amir Gohar

Susan Hanson

Saul Karamesines

Kathy McInnes

Nobuo Mimura

Doug Ramsay

Document Type




File Format

.csv, .shp, .cpg, .dbf, .prj, .sbn, .sbx, .shx, .pdf

Viewing Instructions

Spatial Data requires GIS software

Publication Date



European Union’s Horizon 2020


Utah State University

Award Number

European Union’s Horizon 2020 869304

Award Title

A Closer Look at the Interactions Between Atmosphere, Ocean and Ice Sheets


We gathered technical publicly available information about city and state agencies from knowledgeable staff members. We used a survey instrument called "Sea Level Projections in Coastal Planning Questionnaire" to understand publicly available data about each jurisdiction's policies and procedures about sea level rise.

Referenced by

Hirschfeld, D., Behar, D., Nicholls, R., et al. (2022) "A Global Survey of the application of Sea-Level Projections". Communications - Earth & Environment. [Under Review].

Start Date


End Date



See SLR_Questionnaire_Point_Data.shp, SLR_Continent.shp, and SLR_Zone.shp.



Code Lists

See Data Dictionary in README file.


The data for the coastal zones was derived from Nicholls, R.J., Lincke, D., Hinkel, J. et al. A global analysis of subsidence, relative sea-level change and coastal flood exposure. Nat. Clim. Chang. 11, 338–342 (2021).


Landscape Architecture | Urban, Community and Regional Planning


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.




Additional Files

README_Hirschfeld.txt (18 kB)