Black raspberries (BRB) are rich in anthocyanins with purported anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known whether dietary supplementation would ameliorate Western-diet enhanced gut inflammation and colon tumorigenesis. We employed a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with 5 to 10% (w/w) whole, freeze-dried BRB in male C57BL/6J mice fed either a standard healthy diet (AIN93G) or the total Western diet (TWD). In a pilot study, BRB suppressed colitis and colon tumorigenesis while also shifting the composition of the fecal microbiome in favor of taxa with purported health benefits, including Bifidobacteria pseudolongum. In follow-up experiment using a 2?2 factorial design with AIN and TWD basal diets with and without 10% (w/w) BRB, supplementation with BRB reduced tumor multiplicity and increased colon length irrespective of the basal diet, but did not apparently affect colitis symptoms, colon inflammation, or mucosal injury. However, BRB intake increased alpha diversity, altered beta diversity, and changed the relative abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Akkermansiaceae, among others, of the fecal microbiome. Notably, changes in microbiome profiles were inconsistent with respect to the basal diet consumed. Overall, these studies provide equivocal evidence for in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of BRB on colitis and colon tumorigenesis, yet BRB supplementation led to dynamic changes in the fecal microbiome composition over the course of disease development.

Author ORCID Identifier

Abby D. Benninghoff

Document Type




File Format


Publication Date



USDA, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)

Utah Agricultural Experiment Station


Utah State University

Award Number

USDA, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) 2018-67017-27516; Utah Agricultural Experiment Station UTA-01178 and UTA-04156

Award Title

Dietary Intervention with Black Raspberries to Promote Gut Homeostasis and Prevent Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer


Data for two experiments are provided. Experiment A included the following experimental diets: AIN (American Institute of Nutrition AIN93G standard healthy diet); TWD, the total Western diet; the TWD + 5% (w/w) black raspberry powder; and the TWD + 10% (w/w) black raspberry powder. Experiment B included the AIN diet; AIN +10% black raspberry powder; TWD diet; and TWD + 10% black raspberry powder. The fecal microbiome was assessed by 16s rRNA sequencing prior to induction of colitis and tumorigenesis (pre-DSS), during active colitis (colitis), 14 days later during recovery from gut injury (recovery) at at the study end (terminal). For experiment A,sequences were processed using QIIME with mapping of sequences to the GreenGenes OTU database (gg_13_8_otus). For experiment B, microbiota sequences were processed using QIIME 2 and DADA2. The DADA2 R package implements the full amplicon workflow (filtering, dereplication, chimera identification, merging paired end reads) and generates an amplicon sequence variant (ASV) table and representative sequences. To assign taxonomy, the QIIME feature-classifier classify-sklearn command was used with a classifier pre-trained for the V4 region, silva-138-99-515-806-nb-classifier.qza, and the most recent release of the Silva database (138 SSU). The resulting sequence count data are provided as OTU (experiment A) or ASV (experiment B) files in .csv format, with the corresponding taxonomy and mapping files also in .csv format for each experiment.

Scientfic Names

Bifidobacteria pseudolongum, Bifidobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Akkermansiaceae



Code Lists



Animal Sciences | Veterinary Medicine


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.




Additional Files

Benninghoff_Experiment_A_mapping_file.csv (2 kB)

Benninghoff_Experiment_A_OTU_table.csv (327 kB)

Benninghoff_Experiment_A_taxonomy.csv (144 kB)

Benninghoff_Experiment_B_ASV_table.csv (799 kB)

Benninghoff_Experiment_B_mapping file.csv (3 kB)

Benninghoff_Experiment_B_taxonomy.csv (250 kB)

Readme.txt (7 kB)