Large, landscape-scale national monuments have long been controversial. It has been claimed that large monuments harm local economies by restricting growth of the grazing, timber, mining, and energy industries. Others have asserted that large monuments aid economic growth by reducing reliance on volatile commodity markets and fostering tourism growth. In this study, we use a synthetic control approach to measure the average causal effect of nine national monument designations on county-level per capita income. We find no evidence that monument designation affected per capita income in any of 20 counties hosting nine large (>50,000 acres) national monuments established under the Antiquities Act (six monuments) or by legislative action (three monuments). The broad economic claims of both advocates and critics of large national monuments have little empirical support. The absence of a designation effect for large national monuments is likely due to the attributes of federal land and the legal constraints under which it is managed.
Author ORCID Identifier
Paul M Jakus https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9261-3709
Software program R is needed to use data.
Utah Agricultural Experiment Station; USDA Regional Research Project
Utah State University
Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Projects UTAO1360; Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Projects UTAO1306; USDA Regional Research Project W-4133
Data files were collected from areas listed below. The Main file contains the R code.
Main code.txt General R code for sythetic control analysis nine individual National Monument datafiles All data files have data from 1970 until 2015
CA - Carrizo Plain.csv County-level data for analysis of Carrizo Plain NM, CA
CA - Giant Sequoia.csv County-level data for analysis of Giant Sequoia NM, CA
CA - Santa Rosa.csv County-level data for analysis of Santa Rosa and San Jacinto NM, CA
CO.csv County-level data for analysis of Canyon of the Ancients NM, CO
MT.csv County-level data for analysis of Upper Missouri River Breaks NM, MT
OR Cascade.csv County-level data for analysis of Cascade-Siskiyou NM, OR
OR - Newberry.csv County-level data for analysis of Newberry NVM, OR
WA - Hanford.csv County-level data for analysis of Hanford Reach NM, WA
WA - Mt. Saint Helen.csv County-level data for analysis of Mt. Saint Helens NVM, WA
Jakus, P.M., and S.B. Akhundjanov The Antiquities Act, national monuments, and the regional economy J. Environmental Economics and Management 95(2019):102-117
See the attached file variable_names_defs_General_NM _project.csv for list of variables in each data file.
Agricultural and Resource Economics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Jakus, P. M., & Akhundjanov, S. B. (2018). General NM data Jakus and Akhundjanov. Utah State University. https://doi.org/10.15142/T3PS74
Additional FilesREADME.txt (1 kB)
Main code.txt (6 kB)
CA - Carrizo Plain.csv (654 kB)
CA - Giant Sequoia.csv (654 kB)
CA - Santa Rosa.csv (654 kB)
CO.csv (733 kB)
MT.csv (599 kB)
OR - Cascade.csv (364 kB)
OR - Newberry.csv (364 kB)
WA - Hanford.csv (460 kB)
WA - Mt. Saint Helen.csv (460 kB)
variable_names_defs_General_NM _project.csv (2 kB)