Title

Greenhouse- and field-measured plant-soil feedbacks are not correlated

Description

Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have become a commonly invoked mechanism of plant coexistence and abundance. Yet, most PSF experiments have been performed in greenhouse conditions. To test whether or not greenhouse-measured PSF values are of similar magnitude and positively correlated with field-measured PSFs, we compared PSF values from five different studies that measured PSF values in both greenhouse and field conditions. For 36 plant species, greenhouse-measured PSF values were larger than and not positively correlated with field-measured PSF values. Similarly, these 36 species produced 269 soil-specific PSF values, and for each site there was no positive correlation between these greenhouse- and field-measured PSF values. While PSFs were observed in both greenhouse and field conditions, results provided no support at the soil, site or species level that a positive correlation exists between greenhouse- and field-measured PSF. Further, greenhouse-measured PSF appear to overestimate field-measured PSF. Although from five studies, results strongly suggest that field experiments are needed to understand the role of PSFs in plant communities in natural settings.

Document Type

Dataset

DCMI Type

Dataset

File Format

.cvs, .txt

Publication Date

11-18-2019

Funder

NSF, Division of Environmental Biology (DEB)

Publisher

Utah State University

Award Number

NSF, Division of Environmental Biology (DEB) 1354129

Award Title

Quantifying plant-soil feedback effects in classic diversity-productivity experiments

Methodology

*****Cedar Creek Plant-Soil Feedback Field Experiment***** A 1750 m2 fallow area adjacent to a large, long-term biodiversity experiment at Cedar Creek was sprayed with glyphosate and disked to thoroughly remove vegetation and homogenize soils in the top 15 cm. 0.75 mm thick HDPE root barrier was inserted to 35 cm deep between each plot. 2,720 0.75 by 0.35 m PSF plots were established. In spring 2015, all plots were seeded with 10 g pure live seed per m2. During the first year, plots were watered weekly to ensure germination. To establish the phase 1 treatment, each of the 16 target species were planted as monocultures and grown from 2015 to 2016. Non-target species were removed by hand-weeding. In 2016, fall PSF plots were sprayed with glyphosate and hand-tilled using a garden claw. Plots with exceptionally thick roots were tilled using a rototiller. In spring 2017, any living plants were sprayed again with glyphosate. 2,608 plots realized growth in phase I. Plots were replanted with either the same (“self” treatment) or a different (“other” treatment) species. Plots that did not realize growth were replanted randomly as a control soil treatment. Plots were clipped, dried, and weighed in fall 2018.

*****Cedar Creek Plant-Soil Feedback Greenhouse Experiment***** The greenhouse experiment was implemented at the Utah State University Crop Physiology Lab in Logan, UT. Soil from an area adjacent to the field experiment was dried in a 31° C room, and shipped to Logan, UT. A 6:1 mixture of loamy sand and sphagnum peat from Miller Companies, LLC in Hyrum UT was steam sterilized, and inoculated with 10% field soil. 2,720 1-L pots were planted with four seedlings, and then thinned down two seedlings after a one-month period. Plants were grown for a 6 month period, then killed by clipping. 2,466 pots had growth in phase I, and all other pots were discarded. Pots that realized growth were replanted with either the same (“self” treatment) or a different (“other” treatment) species, and grown for a 6 month period. At the end of the experiment, aboveground biomass was clipped, dried, and weighed.

*****Jena Plant-Soil Feedback Field Experiment***** A 730 m2 area in a fallowed field was sprayed with glyphosate and disked to thoroughly remove vegetation and homogenize soils in the top 15 cm. 0.75 mm thick HDPE root barrier was inserted to 35 cm deep between each plot. 1251 0.75 by 0.35 m PSF plots were established in the area. In spring 2015, all plots were seeded with 2000 pure live seeds per m2. During the first year, plots received water twice weekly to ensure germination. To establish the phase 1 treatment, each of the nine target species were planted as monocultures and grown from 2015 to 2016. Non-target species were removed by hand-weeding. In 2016, fall PSF plots were sprayed with glyphosate and hand-tilled using a garden claw. To prevent regrowth roots of phase 1 species were removed. Plots were replanted with 2000 pure live seeds per square meter with either the same (“self” treatment) or a different (“other” treatment) species. Plots were clipped, dried, sorted, and weighed in summer 2018.

*****Jena Plant-Soil Feedback Greenhouse Experiment***** Soil from an area adjacent to the field experiment was dried and transported to Halle. A 3:1 mixture of compost and sand from SWH Stadtwerke Halle in Halle DE was inoculated with 10% field soil. 650 1-L pots were planted with 1 seedling each and grown for an eight month period. Phase 1 plants were then killed by clipping, and hand-weeding if needed. 475 pots had growth in phase I, and all other pots were discarded. Pots that realized growth were replanted with either the same (“self” treatment) or a different (“other” treatment) species. At the end of the experiment, aboveground biomass was clipped, dried, and weighed.

Referenced by

Forero, Leslie E., et al. "Greenhouse- and Field-Measured Plant-Soil Feedbacks Are Not Correlated." Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2019. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2019.00184

Start Date

2018

End Date

2018

Location

Cedar Creek Field Site: 45.403290, -93.187411; Cedar Creek Greenhouse: 41.757954, -111.813309; Jena Field Site: 50.951951, 11.623832; Jena Greenhouse: 51.489732, 11.959133;

Language

eng

Code Lists

See README.txt

Comments

This file includes the aboveground biomass in grams of plants growing on conditioned soils.

Disciplines

Natural Resources Management and Policy

License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Identifier

https://doi.org/10.26078/52k0-jr94

Files

README.txt (8 kB)

combined_CdrJena_001.csv (278 kB)

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