Aspen Bibliography


Habitat capability model for birds wintering in the Black Hills, South Dakota

Document Type



USDA Forest Service Research Papers RMR

Publication Date



Birds are sensitive indicators of vegetation conditions because they have relatively narrow habitat requirements. Resident bird populations are relatively stable in winter and more closely associated with specific habitats than during summer. Winter can be critical for birds in northern latitudes because food and cover have restricted distribution or abundance. If birds are year-residents, land managers must understand their winter habitat needs to insure that sufficient habitat exists to sustain populations.