Toward a framework for Effective Teaching in Agricultural Education: A Multi-State Factor-Analytic and Psychometric Analysis of Effective Teachinga framework for Effective Teaching in Extension Education: A Multi-State Factor-Analytic and Psychometric Analysis of Effective Teaching

Becki G. Lawver, Utah State University
B. R. McKim
K. Enns
A. R. Smith
M. S. Aschenbrener

Originally published by the American Association of Agricultural Education (aaae) in Journal of Agricultural Education.


Research on effective teaching has been conducted in a variety of settings for more than 40 years. A valuable component of a larger sequential mixed method study addressing effective teaching in formal and non-formal agricultural education, this study provides direction for future effective teaching research in secondary agricultural education. Specifically, the 142 behaviors, characteristics, and techniques considered indicative of effective teaching were reassessed to reduce the number of competencies and identify constructs of effective teaching in agricultural education. A total of 1,631 secondary agriculture teachers from 37 states surveyed in the fall of 2011 served as the population for this study. Fifty effective teaching competencies in 10 constructs were identified to evaluate effective teaching. The psychometric evaluation of the 10 constructs resulted in Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from .83 to .93, supporting the reliability of the identified constructs. A panel of experts then named the constructs that emerged; many of the constructs aligned with those identified through previous effective teaching research. Numerous implications for practice and research resulted from this study, including a proposed framework for assessing effective teaching in agricultural education, which includes the utilization of self-evaluation, formal observation, and student achievement data.