Integration of visual and olfactory cues of hosts and non-hosts by three bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
1. There has been a long-standing pre-occupation with how phytophagous insects use olfactory cues to discriminate hosts from non-hosts. Foragers, however, should use whatever cues are accurate and easily assessed, including visual cues.
2. It was hypothesised that three bark beetles, the mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, the Douglas-fir beetle (DFB), D. pseudotsugae Hopkins, and the western balsam bark beetle (WBBB), Dryocoetes confusus Swaine, integrate visual and olfactory information to avoid non-host angiosperms (e.g. paper birch, trembling aspen), that differ in visual and semiochemical profile from their respective host conifers (lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, interior fir), and tested this hypothesis in a series of field trapping experiments.
3. All three species avoided attractant-baited, white (non-host simulating) multiple-funnel traps, and preferred attractant-baited black (host-simulating) traps. In experiments combining white, non-host traps with non-host angiosperm volatiles, bark beetles were repelled by these stimuli in an additive or redundant manner, confirming that these species could integrate visual and olfactory information to avoid non-host angiosperms while flying.
4. When antiaggregation pheromones were released from white traps, the DFB and MPB were repelled in an additive-redundant manner, suggesting that beetles can integrate diverse and potentially anomalous stimuli.
Campbell, S.A., Borden, J.H. Integration of visual and olfactory cues of hosts and non-hosts by three bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ecol Entomol. 2006, 31:437–449