American Journal of Botany
Flowers of Dalechampia magnoliifolia in eastern Peru were pollinated primarily by male Eulaema meriana and E. cingulata, which collected fragrance from the secretory gland borne in the staminate cymule. The fragrance contains carvone oxide, benzyl acetate, limonene, a -pinene, myrcine, B-pinene/camphene, and carvone. Trigona cf. pallens was the most abundant visitor, but was primarily a pollen thief. The rate of contact with the stigmas by Trigona, and hence the bee's efficacy as a pollinator, was highly variable and was determined by variation in the separation of anthers and stigmas. Dalechampia magnoliifolia co-occurred with a congeneric species, D. cissifolia, but did not share pollinators with it.
Armbruster, W. Scott; Keller, S.; Matsuki, M.; and Clausen, T. P., "Pollination of Dalechampia Magnolifolia (Euphorbiaceae) by Male Euglossine Bees" (1989). An. Paper 104.
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