The Journal of Nutrition
Carbohydrates in some pollen substitutes (galactose, lactose, raffinose, stachyose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, and pectin) were toxic to caged adult Apis mellifera L. These toxins can be diluted to safe levels by sucrose. Collected nectar apparently dilutes the toxic sugars in pollen thus permitting assimilation of essential nutrients from pollen.
Barker, Roy J., "Some Carbohydrates Found in Pollen and Pollen Substitutes are Toxic to Honey Bees" (1977). An. Paper 215.
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