Male bumble bee labial gland marking pheromone blends from 18 species belonging to three genera (Bombus, Pyrobombus and Alpinobombus) are compared from biochemical, ecological and systematical points of view. General chemical similarities within the genera have been found and also distinct characteristics for each species. Male spatial, temporal, mechanical and marking pheromonal premating species-isolating mechanisms are compared between species in a subalpine/alpine area. Species which utilize the same mating habitat usually differ greatly by virtue of their mechanical, pheromonal and, to some extent, temporal characteristics. These mechanisms enhance species discrimination and counteract hybridization.
Bergström, Gunnar; Svensson, Bo G.; Appelgren, Monica; and Groth, Inga, "Complexity of Bumble Bee Marking Pheremones: Biochemical, Ecological and Systematical Interpretations" (1981). Ba. Paper 122.
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