Males of the carpenter bee Xylocopa v. virginica are territorial at nest sites, food plants, and landmarks such as boulders and houses. Their territories are defined as hover spaces of about 0.03 m inside hemispherical 20-m-radius attack spaces. They copulated in or near nest-site and food-plant territories. Territorial males frequently fought with other males and chased or flew toward females and other airborne objects, such as heterospecific insects, birds, and aeroplanes. They held territories at nesting sites in April and May, but were seen to mate only in fall and on the first vernal flight days of females in April. Patrolling and interloping males without territories frequently attempted mating in the territories of others.
Barrows, Edward M., "Male Territoriality in the Carpenter Bee Xylocopa Virginica Virginica" (1983). Ba. Paper 74.
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