Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Immature stages of Panorpa nuptialis Gerstaecker, including egg, the four larval instars, prepupa, and pupa, have been obtained by rearing the species under artificial condition. Size increase in the larva is rapid during the month following hatching. Following the period of larval growth and activity is a prolonged prepupal stage. The pupal stadium is about 20 days. First-and fourth-instar larvae, egg, and pupae of both sexes are illustrated, and all stages are briefly described. Comparisons with other species are made for most stages.
Byers, George W., "The Life History of Panorpa nuptalis (Mecoptera: Panorpidae)" (1963). Bu. Paper 77.
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