Revista de Biologia
The hypoparyngeal gland of the honeybee workers produces a secret ion known as royal jelly, which is fed to the queen and its brood . In summer bees the secret ion begins 5 or 6 days after the adult emergence and continues through about a dozen days, after which the hypopharyngeal glands degenerate (KRATKY, 1931). In the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata, the same glandular behavior was seen (CRUZ-LANDIM, 1967a). In pioneering reports on honeybee aging, HAYDAK (1957) covered a wide range of organs whose decline he described . About the hypopharyngeal gland he found that when in degenerative process they acquire, a yellowish color. This appearance seems to be due to an accumulation of waste products inside de cytoplasm of the gland cells, but nevertheless, the mechanism of this deterioration remains unknown. Several papers dealing with degenerative changes in tissues describe alterations in the general morphology of the cells components and their relationships. Membranous concentric arrays were verified in several cells of aged tissues, as well as in pathological degeneration (GABE and ARVEY, 1961; CRUZ-LANDIM, 1967b; KUROSUMI and alli, 1962; FARQUHAR and RINEHART, 1954; ENDERS e LYONS, 1964; SCHAFFNER and FELIG, 1965; MONTENEGRO and alli, 1968). An age dependent degeneration of mitochondria that is characterized by morphological and biochemical alterations was detected by SACKTOR e SHIMADA (1972) in Phormia regina flight muscle. The myelin like concentric systems seen in degenerative process may in some cases originate in connection with the mitochondria but, more frequently are related with the lysosomes (DE DUVE, 1963). These structures have received several denominations as: parasomes (FORBES, 1964) and cytolysomes (SMITH, 1969). The cytolysomes are, in general, structures of bigger sizes than the parasomes. In certain cases pigments are associated to these structures as the lipofuscin that appears in aged neurons.
Da Cruz Landim, Carminda and de Moraes, Regina Lúcia Morelli Silva, "Degenerative Structures in the Hypopharyngeal Gland from Aging Bees (Melipona Quadrifasciata Anthidioides Lep.)" (1973). Co. Paper 15.
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