Journal of the New York Entomological Society
The wax glands of bees of the subfamily Apinae are actually specialized hypodermis which internally covers the exoskeleton in certain abdominal areas. Characteristic of glandular tissue are distinct only during the period of active secretion, and is difficult to distinguish from unspecialized hypodermis during the inactive period. These glands are situated in sterna IV to VII in honeybees (Apis) and from terga IV to VII in the meliponids (Melipona and Trigona ). In the bumblebees (Bombus), the most primitive social Apinae, they are found both in terga (IV to VII) and sterna (IV to VII), though more developed dorsally. In Euglossa, a unique non-social group of Apinae the wax glands are restricted to tergum VII. There is no marked difference in the histology of these glands among the species observed. Glandular tissue, histologically similar to the wax glands, was confirmed within the mandibles of Apis and the meliponids. The scent glands were studied in Bombus workers, Apis workers , and meliponid queens. Scent glands were situated in the anterior part of tergum VII and showed no histological difference among species examined.
Da Cruz Landim, Carminda, "Evaluation of the Wax and Scent Glands in the Apinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae)" (1963). Co. Paper 2.
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