Journal of Natural History
Taylor & Francis
Investigation of the cephalic foveae on the vertex of many female eumenine wasps, indicates that these depressions represent external openings of paired dermal glands. The function of this secretory system remains unknown, but it probably plays a role in mating. Presence of foveae in addition to modifications of the hypothesized primitive state, including coalescence of the foveae into a single opening, increased development of foveal setae, greater foveal separation and partial or complete foveal regression, are often useful indicators of phylogenetic relationship among various eumenine taxa.
Cumming, Jeffrey M. and Leggett, Frances L., "Cephalic foveae of eumenine wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)" (1985). Co. Paper 32.
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