Identification and characterization of a Carlavirus causing veinal necrosis of Coleus
A filamentous virus identified in coleus (Coleus × hybrida) in Minnesota and New York was found to cause veinal necrosis in coleus, although this symptom was observed only under certain conditions. The virus was transmitted readily by mechanical inoculation to coleus and Nicotiana spp. and was not transmitted by Myzus persicae. The particles of the coleus virus had a modal length of 640 nm and a single capsid protein with an estimated molecular mass of 34 kDa. The amino acid sequence of the coat protein region of the coleus virus genome had significant similarities only to the corresponding domain of carlaviruses. Based on virion morphology, capsid protein size, genome size and organization, amino acid sequence, and phylogenetic analyses, the coleus virus, which was named provisionally Coleus vein necrosis virus (CVNV), was concluded to be a new definitive member of the genus Carlavirus. A 2-kb fragment of the 3′ terminus of the CVNV genome sequence is accessible under accession number DQ915963 in GenBank.