Root-knot nematodes in golfcourse greens of the Western United States

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Plant Disease



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A survey of 238 golf courses in 10 states of the western United States found root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in 60% of the putting greens sampled. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA, D2-D3 of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer-rRNA, and mitochondrial DNA gene sequences were used to identify specimens from 110 golf courses. The most common species, Meloidogyne naasi, was found in 58 golf courses distributed from Southern California to Washington in the coastal or cooler areas of those states. In the warmer regions of the Southwest, M. marylandi was recovered from 38 golf courses and M. graminis from 11 golf courses. This constitutes the first report of M. marylandi in Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah, and the first report of M. graminis in Arizona, Hawaii, and Nevada. Two golf courses in Washington were infested with M. minor, the first record of this nematode in the Western Hemisphere. Columbia root-knot nematode, M. chitwoodi, was found in a single golf course in California. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism of the intergenic region between the cytochrome oxidase and 16S rRNA genes in the mitochondrial genome with restriction enzyme SspI was able to distinguish populations of M. graminis from M. marylandi, providing a fast and inexpensive method for future diagnosis of these nematodes from turf.

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