Fern Phylogeny Based on rbcL Nucleaotice Sequences
American Fern Journal
We analyzed nucleotide variation in rbcL (the gene encoding the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) from 99 genera of leptosporangiate ferns representing 31 of the 33 extant families. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using three methods: neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. All three methods resulted in optimal trees that were similar. Within the context of those taxa examined, these trees suggest that: 1) Polypodiaceae, Grammitidaceae and Pleurosoriopsis form a monophyletic group that is most derived among indusiate ferns; 2) Davallia is closely related to the Polypodiaceae; 3) Tectaria is related to Oleandraceae rather than to other members of Dryopteridaceae; 4) Rumohra and Elaphoglossum are closely related; 5) Dryopteridaceae are polyphyletic; 6) a monophyletic group consists of Polypodiaceae, Grammitidaceae, Davalliaceae, Oleandraceae, Nephrolepidaceae, Lomariopsidaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Blechnaceae, Aspleniaceae, and Pleurosoriopsis; 7) Dennstaedtiaceae, Monachosoraceae, Pteridaceae, Vittariaceae, and the previous clade form a monophyletic group; 8) Dennstaedtiaceae are polyphyletic; 9) tree ferns in the Cyatheaceae, Metaxyaceae, and Dicksoniaceae form a monophyletic group that emerged early in the diversification of leptosporangiate ferns; 10) Plagiogyriaceae and Loxomataceae emerge with the tree ferns; 11) heterosporous water ferns form a monophyletic group that diverged prior to the tree ferns; 12) Schizaeaceae, Cheiropleuriaceae, Dipteridaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Matoniaceae, and Hymenophyllaceae are basal to the heterosporous aquatic ferns; and 13) Osmundaceae are the most basal lineage of the leptosporangiate ferns.
Hasebe, M. P. G. Wolf et al. 1995. Fern phylogeny based on rbcL nucleotide sequences. American Fern Journal 85: 134-181