Incipient Motion of Gravels in a Bottomless Arch Culvert
International Journal of Sediment Research
Incipient motion was investigated for four gravel substrate materials in a bottomless arch culvert and a rectangular flume. Different methods for calculating Shields parameter at incipient motion (θc) based upon local flow parameters were explored. An incipient motion region for bottomless arch culverts in fully turbulent flow was defined with two bounding curves on Shields diagram. The variation of θc as a function of relative roughness was examined. Also, a method that utilizes measured flow velocities to determine stable substrate particle diameters for bottomless arched culverts is presented as an alternative to the Shields diagram.
Crookston, B.M. and B.P. Tullis (2012). “Incipient Motion of Gravels in a Bottomless Arch Culvert.” Int. J. Sediment Res., 26(1), 15-26.