Design Considerations for Stationary Hoods Used with Fixed-Cone Valves
International Water Power & Dam Construction
Fixed-cone valves, also known as Howell-Bunger valves, are devices often used to dissipate energy from flow discharged at dams with medium to high heads. If the hood is not precisely placed, a phenomenon known as backsplash will occur. In low temperatures, backsplash can freeze around the valve, which could affect its operation. This paper discusses installation requirements and guidelines for fixed stationary hoods with baffles to prevent backsplash.
Prettyman, B.J., Johnson, M.C. and Sharp, Z. B., 2014. Design Considerations for Stationary Hoods Used with Fixed-Cone Valves. International Water Power & Dam Construction. Volume 21, No. 6, pp. 76-79, 2014.