Revenue recovery through meter replacement
Journal of American Water Works Association
American Water Works Association
Previous studies have identified water meter inaccuracy at low flow rates as a significant source of nonrevenue flow for water systems; however, a lack of available data makes it difficult to include low-flow accuracy and accuracy degradation in meter replacement plans. This article examines results from an extensive accuracy program carried out at the Utah Water Research Laboratory on small water meters over a wide range of flow rates and at various levels of throughput. The article compares expected apparent losses of different types of water meters based on a flow profile and expected daily use for the state of California. By including an average composite charging rate, the method developed in this study can determine the meter replacement payback period for different meter types. The analysis contained in this document is intended as a guide to assist utility managers when meter replacement plans are being developed.
Apr 2012: Revenue recovery through meter replacement. Journal of American Water Works Association (AWWA), Volume 104, Number 4 (April 2012), pp. 252-259, (Devan Shields, * Michael C. Johnson)