Journal of American Water Works Association
American Water Works Association
With rapid growth and limited water supplies, many water systems throughout the United States, in particular those in western states, are aware of the need for water conservation. Supplying secondary water is an approach that reduces demand on potable water and allows for more connections. However, unmetered secondary water use has resulted in an increase in overall water use. The regulation of secondary water would provide utilities increased control of water supplies and would allow residential users to actively conserve water used for outdoor purposes. The authors explore current practices that water suppliers are using, including filtration and innovative meter designs, to conserve precious water resources. Their experiences show that not only is secondary metering a future necessity, it is also a current possibility. Water suppliers can use this information to learn from the experiences of other systems and plan the future of their own distribution systems.
Richards, G.L., Johnson, M.C., and Barfuss, S.L. 2008. Metering Secondary Water in Residential Irrigation Systems. Journal AWWA, 100(6):112-121.